"Place of Birth of the Foreign-Born Population"

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Place of Birth of the Foreign-Born
Population: 2009
Issued October 2010
American Community Survey Briefs
ACSBR/09-15
IntroductIon
By
Elizabeth M. Grieco
This report presents data on the foreign-
Edward N. Trevelyan
Defining Nativity Status:
born population at the national and
Who Is Foreign Born?
state levels based on the 2009 American
Community Survey (ACS). During the last
Nativity status refers to whether
four decades, the foreign-born popula-
a person is native or foreign
tion of the United States has continued
born. The native-born population
to increase in size and as a percent of
includes anyone who was a U.S.
the total population: from 9.6 million
citizen at birth. Respondents who
or 4.7 percent in 1970, to 14.1 million
were born in the United States,
or 6.2 percent in 1980, 19.8 million or
Puerto Rico, a U.S. Island Area (U.S.
7.9 percent in 1990, and 31.1 million
Virgin Islands, Guam, American
or 11.1 percent in 2000.
According to
1
Samoa, or the Commonwealth of
the 2009 ACS, there were 38.5 million
the Northern Mariana Islands), or
foreign-born residents, representing
abroad of a U.S. citizen parent or
12.5 percent of the total population.
2
parents, are defined as native. The
While the number of foreign born repre-
foreign-born population includes
sents a historical high, the proportion of
anyone who was not a U.S. citizen
the total population is lower than during
at birth, including those who have
the great migration of the late 1800s and
become U.S. citizens through
early 1900s, when it fluctuated between
naturalization.
13 percent and 15 percent.
But more
3
notable than the growth of the foreign-
born population is the change in the
In 1960, 75 percent of the foreign born
distribution of origin countries over time.
were from countries in Europe. By 2009,
Gibson, Campbell and Kay Jung. 2006.
1
over 80 percent of the foreign born were
“Historical Census Statistics on the Foreign-Born
from countries in Latin America and Asia.
Population in the United States: 1850 to 2000.” U.S.
Census Bureau: Population Division Working Paper,
Also since 1960, the foreign born increas-
Number 81 available on the U.S. Census Bureau’s Web
ingly have settled in states beyond the
site at <www.census.gov/population/www/techpap
.html>.
traditional gateway states of New York,
In addition, since 1970, as the foreign-born
2
California, Texas, Florida, and Illinois.
population increased in size, it also became, on
This report will discuss the size, country
average, a younger population. In 1970, the median
age of the foreign-born population was 52 years;
of origin, and distribution of the foreign-
by 2009, it was 41 years (Campbell and Jung, 2006;
born population in 2009.
2009 American Community Survey).
The foreign-born population represented
3
13.3 percent of the total population in 1880,
14.8 percent in 1890, 13.6 percent in 1900,
14.7 percent in 1910, and 13.2 percent in 1920.
See Campbell and Jung, 2006.
U.S. Department of Commerce
U
S
C
E
N
S
U
S
B
U
R
E
A
U
Economics and Statistics Administration
U.S. CENSUS BUREAU
Helping You Make Informed Decisions
Place of Birth of the Foreign-Born
Population: 2009
Issued October 2010
American Community Survey Briefs
ACSBR/09-15
IntroductIon
By
Elizabeth M. Grieco
This report presents data on the foreign-
Edward N. Trevelyan
Defining Nativity Status:
born population at the national and
Who Is Foreign Born?
state levels based on the 2009 American
Community Survey (ACS). During the last
Nativity status refers to whether
four decades, the foreign-born popula-
a person is native or foreign
tion of the United States has continued
born. The native-born population
to increase in size and as a percent of
includes anyone who was a U.S.
the total population: from 9.6 million
citizen at birth. Respondents who
or 4.7 percent in 1970, to 14.1 million
were born in the United States,
or 6.2 percent in 1980, 19.8 million or
Puerto Rico, a U.S. Island Area (U.S.
7.9 percent in 1990, and 31.1 million
Virgin Islands, Guam, American
or 11.1 percent in 2000.
According to
1
Samoa, or the Commonwealth of
the 2009 ACS, there were 38.5 million
the Northern Mariana Islands), or
foreign-born residents, representing
abroad of a U.S. citizen parent or
12.5 percent of the total population.
2
parents, are defined as native. The
While the number of foreign born repre-
foreign-born population includes
sents a historical high, the proportion of
anyone who was not a U.S. citizen
the total population is lower than during
at birth, including those who have
the great migration of the late 1800s and
become U.S. citizens through
early 1900s, when it fluctuated between
naturalization.
13 percent and 15 percent.
But more
3
notable than the growth of the foreign-
born population is the change in the
In 1960, 75 percent of the foreign born
distribution of origin countries over time.
were from countries in Europe. By 2009,
Gibson, Campbell and Kay Jung. 2006.
1
over 80 percent of the foreign born were
“Historical Census Statistics on the Foreign-Born
from countries in Latin America and Asia.
Population in the United States: 1850 to 2000.” U.S.
Census Bureau: Population Division Working Paper,
Also since 1960, the foreign born increas-
Number 81 available on the U.S. Census Bureau’s Web
ingly have settled in states beyond the
site at <www.census.gov/population/www/techpap
.html>.
traditional gateway states of New York,
In addition, since 1970, as the foreign-born
2
California, Texas, Florida, and Illinois.
population increased in size, it also became, on
This report will discuss the size, country
average, a younger population. In 1970, the median
age of the foreign-born population was 52 years;
of origin, and distribution of the foreign-
by 2009, it was 41 years (Campbell and Jung, 2006;
born population in 2009.
2009 American Community Survey).
The foreign-born population represented
3
13.3 percent of the total population in 1880,
14.8 percent in 1890, 13.6 percent in 1900,
14.7 percent in 1910, and 13.2 percent in 1920.
See Campbell and Jung, 2006.
U.S. Department of Commerce
U
S
C
E
N
S
U
S
B
U
R
E
A
U
Economics and Statistics Administration
U.S. CENSUS BUREAU
Helping You Make Informed Decisions
SIze, country of BIrth,
and dIStrIButIon of
Figure 1.
the foreIgn-Born
Total Population by Nativity and Foreign-Born
Population by Region of Birth: 2009
PoPulatIon
(Percent distribution. Data based on sample. For information on
In 2009, there were 307 million
confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions,
people living in the United States,
see www.census.gov/acs/www)
including 38.5 million foreign born
representing 1 in 8 residents.
Between 2000 and 2009, the
foreign-born population increased
Asia
27.7
by 7.4 million persons, or by about
24 percent.
Europe
Native
12.7
Over half (53 percent) of all for-
Foreign born
87.5
12.5
eign born were from Latin America
Latin America
(see Figure 1). Another 28 percent
53.1
were from Asia. The next largest
Africa
region-of-origin group —the foreign
3.9
born from Europe—represented
Other regions
1
13 percent of all foreign born, less
2.7
than half the size of the foreign
born from Asia. About 4 percent of
1
Other regions include Oceania and Northern America.
the foreign born were from Africa,
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey, 2009.
followed by about 3 percent from
other regions, including Oceania
and Northern America.
Mexico was the largest of all
Figure 2.
country-of-birth groups (see
Foreign-Born Population by Country of Birth for
Figure 2). There were 11.5 mil-
Countries With 750,000 or More Foreign Born: 2009
lion foreign born from Mexico in
(Data based on sample. For information on confidentiality protection,
the United States, representing
sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions,
As a percent of
see www.census.gov/acs/www)
30 percent of the total foreign-born
the total foreign-
population. Mexico was also the
born population
predominant country in the Latin
29.8
Mexico
America region-of-origin group. Of
5.2
China
1
the 20.5 million foreign born from
4.5
Philippines
Latin America, 56 percent were
4.3
India
born in Mexico. The next largest
3.0
El Salvador
country-of-birth group, the foreign
3.0
Vietnam
born from China, was considerably
2.6
Korea
2
smaller than the foreign-born popu-
2.6
lation from Mexico. There were
Cuba
2.1
2 million foreign born from China,
Canada
2.1
comprising over 5 percent of the
Guatemala
total foreign-born population.
2.1
Dominican Republic
The remaining largest country-of-
38.8
All other countries
birth groups, with about 1 million
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
foreign born each, included
Millions
the Philippines, India, Vietnam,
Includes respondents who reported their country of birth as China, Hong Kong,
1
El Salvador, Korea, and Cuba.
4
Macau, Paracel Islands, or Taiwan.
2
Includes respondents who reported their country of birth as Korea, North Korea,
or South Korea.
The estimates for Vietnam and El
4
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey, 2009.
Salvador are not statistically different. The
estimates for Korea and Cuba are not statisti-
cally different.
2
U.S. Census Bureau
California had the largest num-
ber of foreign-born residents
Figure 3.
Foreign-Born Population by State for States With
(9.9 million), followed by New
750,000 or More Foreign Born: 2009
York (4.2 million), Texas (4.0 mil-
(Data based on sample. For information on confidentiality protection,
lion), and Florida (3.5 million)
sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions,
(see Figure 3). When combined,
see www.census.gov/acs/www)
As a percent of
21.6 million foreign born —or more
the total foreign-
than half (56 percent) of the total
born population
foreign-born population —lived in
25.8
California
just these four states. California’s
10.8
New York
foreign born alone represented
10.3
Texas
over one-fourth of all foreign born.
Florida
9.0
New Jersey
4.6
California also had the largest
Illinois
4.5
proportion of foreign born in its
Massachusetts
2.4
total population (see Figure 4).
Arizona
2.4
Over one-fourth (27 percent) of all
Georgia
2.4
residents of California were for-
Washington
2.1
eign born. Approximately 1 in 5
Virginia
2.1
residents were foreign born in two
All other states
23.4
other states —New York (21 per-
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
cent) and New Jersey (20 percent).
Millions
An additional nine states had pro-
portions of foreign born that were
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey, 2009.
higher than the national average
(12.5 percent): Nevada, Florida,
Hawaii, Texas, Massachusetts,
of their foreign-born populations
at the 90-percent confidence level
Arizona, Illinois, Connecticut, and
from Asia. In three states, the for-
unless otherwise noted. Due to
Maryland.
5
eign born from Africa represented
rounding, some details may not
The composition of the foreign-
more than 15 percent of the for-
sum to totals. For information on
born population by region of birth
eign-born population: North Dakota
sampling and estimation methods,
varied among states. The foreign
(22 percent), Minnesota (18 per-
confidentiality protection, and
born from Latin America repre-
cent), and Maryland (16 percent).
sampling and nonsampling errors,
6
sented over 65 percent of the
One of the states with the highest
please see the “ACS Accuracy of the
state foreign-born population in
proportion of foreign born from
Data (2009)” document located at
New Mexico (78 percent), Florida
Europe in its total foreign-born pop-
<www.census.gov/acs/www
(75 percent), Texas (73 percent),
ulation was Vermont (39 percent).
/Downloads/data_documentation
7
and Arizona (69 percent) (see
/Accuracy/ACS_Accuracy_of
Table 1). In addition to these
Source and accuracy
_Data_2009.pdf>.
4 states, there were 13 other
Data presented in this report are
Additional information about the
states where over 50 percent of
based on people and households
foreign-born population is available
the foreign-born population was
that responded to the ACS in 2009.
on the Census Bureau’s Web site at
from Latin America. The foreign
The resulting estimates are repre-
<www.census.gov/population
born from Asia comprised more
sentative of the entire population.
/www/socdemo/foreign/index.
than 50 percent of the total for-
All comparisons presented in this
html>.
eign-born population in one state:
report have taken sampling error
Hawaii (78 percent). An additional
into account and are significant
10 states had more than one-third
The estimates for North Dakota and
6
The estimates for Nevada and Florida are
Minnesota are not statistically different. The
5
not statistically different. The estimates for
estimates for Minnesota and Maryland are not
Massachusetts and Arizona are not statisti-
statistically different.
cally different. The estimates for Connecticut
7
The estimates for Vermont and Montana
and Maryland are not statistically different.
are not statistically different.
3
U.S. Census Bureau
Figure 4.
AK
Foreign-Born Population by State and Puerto Rico: 2009
(Data based on sample. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error,
nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/acs/www)
WA
ME
NH
VT
MT
ND
MN
OR
ID
MA
NY
WI
SD
MI
WY
RI
PA
CT
IA
NE
NJ
NV
OH
IL
IN
Percentage of
DE
UT
WV
CO
MD
the state’s total
CA
VA
DC
KS
KY
MO
population
NC
20.0 or more
TN
AZ
OK
15.0 to 19.9
AR
NM
SC
10.0 to 14.9
AL
MS
GA
6.0 to 9.9
TX
Less than 6.0
LA
United States = 12.5
FL
PR
HI
Sources: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey, 2009, Puerto Rico Community Survey, 2009.
What IS the amerIcan
places, and other localities every
in Puerto Rico, where it is called
year. It has an annual sample size
the Puerto Rico Community Survey.
communIty Survey?
of about 3 million addresses across
Beginning in 2006, ACS data for
The American Community
the United States and Puerto Rico
2005 were released for geographic
Survey (ACS) is a nationwide survey
and includes both housing units
areas with populations of 65,000
designed to provide communities
and group quarters (e.g., nursing
and greater. For information on the
with reliable and timely demo-
facilities and prisons). The ACS is
ACS sample design and other top-
graphic, social, economic, and
conducted in every county through-
ics, visit <www.census.gov/acs
housing data for the nation, states,
out the nation, and every municipio
/www>.
congressional districts, counties,
4
U.S. Census Bureau
Table 1.
the foreign-Born Population, Showing Percentage of the Population by region of Birth
and by State and Puerto rico: 2009
(Numbers in thousands. Data based on sample. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error,
and definitions, see www.census.gov/acs/www)
Foreign born
Africa
Asia
Europe
Latin America
Other regions
1
Margin
Margin
Margin
Margin
Margin
Margin
Area
of error
Percent
of error
Percent
of error
Percent
of error
Percent
of error
Percent
of error
2
2
2
2
2
2
Total
(±)
of total
(±)
of total
(±)
of total
(±)
of total
(±)
of total
(±)
United States . . .
38,517
116
3 .9
0 .1
27 .7
0 .1
12 .7
0 .1
53 .1
0 .1
2 .7
Alabama . . . . . . . . . . .
147
4
5 .2
1 .5
28 .3
1 .6
12 .5
1 .4
51 .0
2 .1
3 .1
0 .8
Alaska . . . . . . . . . . . . .
49
3
3 .4
2 .0
51 .6
3 .7
13 .3
2 .3
23 .7
3 .9
8 .0
1 .9
Arizona . . . . . . . . . . . .
925
20
2 .2
0 .4
15 .0
0 .7
8 .9
0 .6
69 .4
0 .9
4 .5
0 .4
Arkansas . . . . . . . . . . .
120
5
1 .7
0 .8
20 .2
2 .2
9 .6
1 .7
65 .5
2 .3
3 .0
0 .8
California . . . . . . . . . . .
9,947
47
1 .4
0 .1
35 .1
0 .2
6 .7
0 .2
54 .8
0 .3
2 .1
0 .1
Colorado . . . . . . . . . . .
487
15
3 .8
0 .7
21 .5
1 .1
13 .5
0 .9
58 .0
1 .4
3 .2
0 .5
Connecticut . . . . . . . . .
460
12
3 .8
0 .7
21 .5
0 .7
28 .1
1 .2
42 .7
1 .3
3 .9
0 .4
Delaware . . . . . . . . . . .
74
5
9 .6
2 .7
31 .0
3 .5
14 .6
2 .8
41 .9
4 .2
2 .9
1 .5
District of Columbia . . .
72
5
13 .1
3 .2
17 .3
2 .0
16 .9
2 .6
49 .0
3 .1
3 .7
1 .2
Florida . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3,484
37
1 .4
0 .1
10 .0
0 .2
10 .5
0 .3
74 .8
0 .4
3 .3
0 .2
Georgia . . . . . . . . . . . .
920
17
8 .2
0 .8
25 .0
0 .8
10 .0
0 .7
54 .6
0 .8
2 .2
0 .3
Hawaii . . . . . . . . . . . . .
224
9
0 .8
0 .4
78 .2
2 .2
5 .5
0 .9
4 .8
0 .9
10 .8
1 .7
Idaho . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
98
6
3 .0
1 .3
15 .3
2 .2
17 .1
2 .5
59 .1
3 .0
5 .5
1 .3
Illinois . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1,741
24
2 .6
0 .3
25 .8
0 .5
22 .7
0 .7
47 .6
0 .7
1 .3
0 .1
Indiana . . . . . . . . . . . . .
281
9
4 .7
1 .1
27 .6
1 .4
16 .4
1 .7
47 .8
1 .6
3 .5
0 .5
Iowa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
116
4
6 .5
1 .6
33 .8
2 .0
15 .2
2 .1
42 .0
2 .2
2 .5
0 .6
Kansas . . . . . . . . . . . . .
171
6
4 .3
0 .9
26 .8
1 .3
8 .8
1 .3
57 .8
1 .8
2 .4
1 .0
Kentucky . . . . . . . . . . .
128
6
7 .3
1 .8
30 .7
2 .5
18 .0
2 .5
40 .4
2 .6
3 .5
0 .9
Louisiana . . . . . . . . . . .
152
7
4 .5
1 .8
32 .4
1 .9
10 .7
1 .4
49 .5
2 .2
2 .9
0 .8
Maine . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
44
4
15 .3
5 .0
22 .6
2 .6
24 .9
3 .4
8 .1
2 .2
29 .0
4 .0
Maryland . . . . . . . . . . .
730
14
16 .1
1 .1
32 .8
0 .9
12 .2
0 .7
37 .6
1 .0
1 .3
0 .2
Massachusetts . . . . . . .
943
19
8 .1
0 .9
27 .6
0 .8
25 .9
0 .9
34 .8
1 .1
3 .5
0 .3
Michigan . . . . . . . . . . .
614
15
3 .6
0 .6
45 .5
1 .3
25 .0
1 .2
19 .3
1 .0
6 .6
0 .5
Minnesota . . . . . . . . . .
358
10
17 .9
1 .5
36 .3
1 .2
12 .9
1 .2
29 .2
1 .3
3 .8
0 .6
Mississippi . . . . . . . . . .
60
5
3 .2
1 .4
31 .1
3 .6
12 .5
2 .7
49 .5
4 .0
3 .6
1 .7
Missouri . . . . . . . . . . . .
213
8
7 .4
1 .3
35 .7
1 .8
23 .6
1 .8
30 .1
1 .7
3 .1
0 .6
Montana . . . . . . . . . . . .
19
2
2 .0
2 .0
28 .1
5 .6
33 .1
6 .5
16 .2
4 .1
20 .6
4 .6
Nebraska . . . . . . . . . . .
106
4
7 .8
1 .7
26 .2
2 .1
5 .9
1 .1
57 .4
2 .6
2 .7
1 .0
Nevada . . . . . . . . . . . .
507
11
2 .9
0 .6
26 .8
0 .9
8 .7
0 .9
58 .7
1 .0
2 .9
0 .5
New Hampshire . . . . . .
68
5
8 .1
1 .9
29 .8
2 .7
25 .7
2 .8
22 .9
3 .3
13 .6
2 .5
New Jersey . . . . . . . . .
1,759
24
4 .5
0 .4
31 .1
0 .6
18 .1
0 .5
45 .2
0 .7
1 .0
0 .1
New Mexico . . . . . . . . .
196
10
1 .7
0 .6
9 .5
0 .8
7 .9
1 .0
78 .3
1 .4
2 .6
0 .6
New York . . . . . . . . . . .
4,178
36
4 .0
0 .3
26 .4
0 .3
19 .2
0 .4
48 .8
0 .5
1 .6
0 .1
North Carolina . . . . . . .
665
14
5 .7
0 .8
22 .2
0 .8
11 .7
0 .7
57 .3
1 .0
3 .2
0 .4
North Dakota . . . . . . . .
15
2
21 .6
4 .1
25 .7
4 .9
16 .1
4 .2
11 .5
4 .6
25 .1
5 .1
Ohio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
433
11
11 .3
1 .3
36 .6
1 .3
27 .7
1 .3
20 .5
1 .0
4 .0
0 .5
Oklahoma . . . . . . . . . .
190
7
4 .3
1 .1
23 .4
1 .4
7 .9
0 .9
60 .4
1 .9
4 .0
1 .2
Oregon . . . . . . . . . . . . .
367
12
2 .3
0 .5
27 .7
1 .2
16 .4
1 .3
48 .0
1 .3
5 .6
0 .7
Pennsylvania . . . . . . . .
691
16
7 .7
0 .9
36 .4
1 .0
26 .4
1 .1
26 .9
1 .2
2 .6
0 .3
Rhode Island . . . . . . . .
133
7
12 .5
2 .0
16 .6
1 .5
23 .6
2 .3
43 .4
2 .5
3 .9
1 .1
South Carolina . . . . . . .
205
8
3 .0
1 .1
24 .1
1 .6
16 .6
1 .6
52 .3
1 .8
4 .1
0 .9
South Dakota . . . . . . . .
22
3
17 .4
4 .4
31 .4
5 .3
23 .2
8 .7
22 .4
5 .0
5 .6
1 .9
Tennessee . . . . . . . . . .
266
10
7 .7
1 .6
29 .6
1 .9
12 .0
1 .3
46 .9
1 .5
3 .8
0 .7
Texas . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3,985
37
3 .1
0 .2
17 .6
0 .3
4 .6
0 .2
73 .4
0 .4
1 .3
0 .1
Utah . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
218
7
2 .3
0 .9
18 .5
1 .6
11 .1
1 .3
59 .6
1 .8
8 .6
1 .1
Vermont . . . . . . . . . . . .
21
2
4 .5
2 .5
24 .3
4 .5
38 .7
5 .6
6 .1
2 .1
26 .4
4 .2
Virginia . . . . . . . . . . . . .
806
15
8 .7
0 .8
41 .4
0 .9
11 .7
0 .7
35 .7
0 .8
2 .5
0 .3
Washington . . . . . . . . .
811
15
5 .2
0 .6
39 .0
0 .8
18 .4
1 .0
30 .2
0 .9
7 .1
0 .5
West Virginia . . . . . . . .
23
2
8 .4
4 .1
51 .6
6 .3
16 .5
4 .2
19 .8
5 .0
3 .6
1 .9
Wisconsin . . . . . . . . . .
256
9
3 .8
0 .9
31 .2
1 .4
20 .3
1 .7
41 .2
1 .8
3 .4
0 .7
Wyoming . . . . . . . . . . .
17
2
3 .2
3 .1
16 .4
6 .2
13 .2
4 .4
59 .0
6 .8
8 .2
3 .1
Puerto Rico . . . . . . . . .
108
7
0 .1
0 .2
2 .7
1 .3
3 .8
1 .0
92 .9
1 .7
0 .4
0 .3
– Represents or rounds to zero .
Other regions include Oceania and Northern America .
1
Data are based on a sample and are subject to sampling variability . A margin of error is a meas
ure of an estimate’s variability . The larger the margin of error
2
in relation to the size of the estimates, the less reliable the estimate . When added to and subtracted
from the estimate, the margin of error forms the 90 percent
confidence interval .
Source: U .S . Census Bureau, American Community Survey, 2009 .
5
U.S. Census Bureau
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