"Bikini Bottom: Blood Type Genetics and Codominance Lab Report Template"

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Name: ____________________________________ Band: _________ Date: _______________
Bikini Bottom: Blood Type Genetics and Codominance
The Problem:
Two starfish couples had babies in the same hospital at the same time. Patrick and Patti had
twins: a boy named Paul and a girl named Patricia. Lawrence and Lisa had a girl, Lucy. After
seeing all of the babies, Lisa insisted that the hospital had switched the baby girls, giving Lisa’s
real daughter to Patti. The hospital decided to perform blood type tests for both families to see if
Lisa was right.
The Information:
There are many different ways to classify blood types, but the most common blood type
classification system is the ABO (said “A-B-O”) system. There are four blood types in the ABO
system: Type A, Type B, Type AB, and Type O. These blood types refer to different versions of
carbohydrates (complex sugar molecules) that stick out of the surface of red blood cells.
1. How are Type A carbohydrates depicted in the diagram above?
2. How are Type B carbohydrates depicted in the diagram above?
Name: ____________________________________ Band: _________ Date: _______________
Bikini Bottom: Blood Type Genetics and Codominance
The Problem:
Two starfish couples had babies in the same hospital at the same time. Patrick and Patti had
twins: a boy named Paul and a girl named Patricia. Lawrence and Lisa had a girl, Lucy. After
seeing all of the babies, Lisa insisted that the hospital had switched the baby girls, giving Lisa’s
real daughter to Patti. The hospital decided to perform blood type tests for both families to see if
Lisa was right.
The Information:
There are many different ways to classify blood types, but the most common blood type
classification system is the ABO (said “A-B-O”) system. There are four blood types in the ABO
system: Type A, Type B, Type AB, and Type O. These blood types refer to different versions of
carbohydrates (complex sugar molecules) that stick out of the surface of red blood cells.
1. How are Type A carbohydrates depicted in the diagram above?
2. How are Type B carbohydrates depicted in the diagram above?
Those Type A and Type B carbohydrate molecules are called antigens. Antigens are also present
on the surface of viruses and bacteria—things that invade your body and do harm. So how does
your body tell the difference between your own cells
and an intruder? It looks at the antigens: if the antigens
on the foreign substance don’t match the ones on the
rest of your cells, your body produces special proteins
called antibodies to kill the intruder.
3. Your blood cells have Type A antigens. Will your body produce antibodies to kill a virus with
Type B antigens?
4. You have blood type AB. Will your body produce antibodies to kill a virus with Type A
antigens?
5. Your body will also attack blood cells that have the wrong antibodies. Test your
understanding of blood groups by filling in the blanks in the chart below.
If a person loses a lot of blood, he/she is given a blood transfusion: someone else’s blood is
injected into the person’s blood vessels. If you are given blood that does not match your blood
type, the antibodies in your blood will attack the antigens on the donated blood, causing the
donated red blood cells to burst or clump together and block blood vessels. Transfusion reactions
can be fatal, so doctors always test a person’s blood type before giving him/her donated blood.
6. Test your understanding of blood groups by completing the table below.
Blood Group
Antigens on red
Antibodies in
Can receive
Can give blood
blood cells
blood
blood from
to
A
A
Anti-B
A and O
A and AB
B
B
AB
A and B
O
None
7. Based on the table above, which blood type would be considered a universal donor
(someone who can give blood to anyone)?
Your blood type is established before you are born by your genes, which were inherited from your
parents. You receive one allele for blood type from your mom and one allele for blood type from
your dad. The three possible alleles are:
A
I
: codes for A antigens on red blood cells
B
I
: codes for B antigens on red blood cells
i: does not code for any antigens
Everyone has TWO alleles for blood type in their cells, which means there are six possible
genotypes and four possible blood types.
8. List the six possible genotypes (combinations of alleles) for blood type. Group them
according to the four possible phenotypes (blood type).
Phenotype
Genotype
Type A (two genotypes possible)
Type B (two genotypes possible)
Type AB (one genotype possible)
Type O (one genotype possible)
A
A
9. In a heterozygous I
i person, which allele is dominant, I
or i? Explain your reasoning, but
do not use capitalization of allele letter as a reason!
Codominance is when two alleles of a gene both influence the phenotype of an individual. Neither
allele is recessive; both alleles are dominant.
10. Which one of the genotypes you listed in question 8 results in a phenotype that provides
evidence of codominance? Hint: look back at the diagrams of the antigens.
11. Draw a picture of a red blood cell for the genotype you identified in question 10 to illustrate
how both alleles influence blood type in this case.
12. Each biological parent gives one of their two blood type alleles to their child. For example, a
father who has blood type AB has the genotype ______, so he will produce sperm with
A
B
A
B
either an I
or an I
allele; he can give either an I
or an I
allele to his child. If the mother
has blood type O, her genotype must be _____, and she can only give an _____ allele to
her child.
13. Complete the Punnett square shown below for the parents mentioned in question 12.
a. What is the percent chance of having a child with type A blood? _____
b. What is the percent chance of having a child with type B blood? _____
c. What is the percent chace of having a child with type AB blood? _____
d. What is the percent chance of having a child with type O blood? _____
14. Create a Punnett square for a mother who has type A blood and a father who has type B
blood. Determine the percent chance of these parents having a child with type O blood.
Solve the Problem:
• Lisa has type B blood.
• Lawrence has type A blood.
• Lucy has type O blood.
• Patrick has type AB blood.
• Patti has type B blood.
• Patricia has type A blood.
• Paul has type B blood.
15. Is it possible for Patrick and Patti to have a child with type O blood? Use a Punnett square
to support your answer.
16. Did Lisa receive her own baby at the hospital, or did she receive Patrick’s and Patti’s baby
girl? How do you know?
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