"Music Theory Reference Sheet"

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MUSIC THEORY QUICK FACTS SHEET
NON-CHORD TONES
PART-WRITING RULES
Type
Approached By:
Left By:
Neighbor Tone
step
step in opposite direction
1. Allow all tendency tones to resolve correctly.
Passing Tone
step
step in the same direction
2. Do not create parallel octaves, fifths, or unisons
Appoggiatura
leap
step in the opposite direction
(by parallel or contrary motion).
Escape Tone
step
leap in the opposite direction
3. If it is possible to keep a note, do so, if not, move
Suspension
same note
step down
each part by the smallest possible interval. Avoid
Retardation
same note
step up
leaping by large, or difficult intervals – especially
Anticipation
step or leap
same note
augmented intervals.
4. No more than an octave between SA and AT.
Pedal Tone
same note
same note
5. No crossed voicings or overlapping of voices.
6. When there is a choice of which chord member to
TENDENCY TONES
double, use the most stable tone present. Usually,
• The leading tone in a V or vii
o
chord resolves UP by step
this is the root, followed by the fifth. Never
to the tonic pitch when going to I or vi.
double a tendency tone as this will force you to
• The 7
th
of any chord resolves DOWN by step.
break rule 1 or 2.
• The root of a Neapolitan chord (lowered 2
nd
scale degree)
7. Never omit any note of a triad or seventh chord
rd
resolves DOWN by diminished 3
to the leading tone of
except the fifth – and only omit the fifth when you
a V chord.
must do so in order to follow rule 1.
• The pitches forming the augmented 6
th
interval in any of
the augmented sixth chords resolve outward by halfstep
These principles assume that you have written with the
in both directions to the dominant pitch.
correct ranges and that all the chords actually contain
Any pitch that is altered usually resolves in the direction
the notes you say they do.
of its alteration.
CADENCE TYPES
Cadence Name
Identifying Characteristics
7
V or V
moving to I. Both chords in root position. Soprano on root of I chord.
PAC
(Perfect Authentic Cadence)
7
IAC
V or V
moving to I, but with either an inverted chord, or the soprano not finishing on
(Imperfect Authentic Cadence)
the tonic.
A cadence that ends on a V chord. The V chord can be approached from a number of
HC
(Half Cadence)
other chords (I, ii, IV, V/V, etc.)
PC
IV moving to I. Also known as “church” cadence. Named for the “Amen” commonly
(Plagal Cadence)
used at the end of hymns.
A cadence that creates the expectation of going to I, but substitutes another chord
DC
6
(Deceptive Cadence)
instead. Common substitutes for I are: vi, IV
, VI, and occasionally IV or V/ii.
INVERSION SYMBOLS
DIATONIC CHORD QUALITIES
NUMBER OF HALFSTEPS
st
nd
rd
o
IN SIMPLE INTERVALS
Root
1
2
3
Major
I
ii
iii
IV
V
vi
vii
Position
Inv.
Inv.
Inv.
o
V
vii
o
Minor
i
ii
III
iv
VI
6
Triad
none
6
none
(v)
(VII)
4
Dim
Min
Maj
Aug
o
* In minor the V and the vii
require
Seventh
6
4
4
nd
2
0
1
2
3
7
Chord
5
3
2
an accidental to raise the leading tone.
rd
3
2
3
4
5
th
6
7
8
9
10
th
FUNCTIONAL DIATONIC CHORD PROGRESSIONS
7
9
10
11
12
Rule of Thumb
Diagram of Common Functional Progressions
Dim
Per
Aug
Root
Typical
movement by:
Direction
th
4
4
5
6
nd
2
Ascending
th
5
6
7
8
rd
3
Descending
th
8
11
12
13
th
5
Descending
MUSIC THEORY QUICK FACTS SHEET
NON-CHORD TONES
PART-WRITING RULES
Type
Approached By:
Left By:
Neighbor Tone
step
step in opposite direction
1. Allow all tendency tones to resolve correctly.
Passing Tone
step
step in the same direction
2. Do not create parallel octaves, fifths, or unisons
Appoggiatura
leap
step in the opposite direction
(by parallel or contrary motion).
Escape Tone
step
leap in the opposite direction
3. If it is possible to keep a note, do so, if not, move
Suspension
same note
step down
each part by the smallest possible interval. Avoid
Retardation
same note
step up
leaping by large, or difficult intervals – especially
Anticipation
step or leap
same note
augmented intervals.
4. No more than an octave between SA and AT.
Pedal Tone
same note
same note
5. No crossed voicings or overlapping of voices.
6. When there is a choice of which chord member to
TENDENCY TONES
double, use the most stable tone present. Usually,
• The leading tone in a V or vii
o
chord resolves UP by step
this is the root, followed by the fifth. Never
to the tonic pitch when going to I or vi.
double a tendency tone as this will force you to
• The 7
th
of any chord resolves DOWN by step.
break rule 1 or 2.
• The root of a Neapolitan chord (lowered 2
nd
scale degree)
7. Never omit any note of a triad or seventh chord
rd
resolves DOWN by diminished 3
to the leading tone of
except the fifth – and only omit the fifth when you
a V chord.
must do so in order to follow rule 1.
• The pitches forming the augmented 6
th
interval in any of
the augmented sixth chords resolve outward by halfstep
These principles assume that you have written with the
in both directions to the dominant pitch.
correct ranges and that all the chords actually contain
Any pitch that is altered usually resolves in the direction
the notes you say they do.
of its alteration.
CADENCE TYPES
Cadence Name
Identifying Characteristics
7
V or V
moving to I. Both chords in root position. Soprano on root of I chord.
PAC
(Perfect Authentic Cadence)
7
IAC
V or V
moving to I, but with either an inverted chord, or the soprano not finishing on
(Imperfect Authentic Cadence)
the tonic.
A cadence that ends on a V chord. The V chord can be approached from a number of
HC
(Half Cadence)
other chords (I, ii, IV, V/V, etc.)
PC
IV moving to I. Also known as “church” cadence. Named for the “Amen” commonly
(Plagal Cadence)
used at the end of hymns.
A cadence that creates the expectation of going to I, but substitutes another chord
DC
6
(Deceptive Cadence)
instead. Common substitutes for I are: vi, IV
, VI, and occasionally IV or V/ii.
INVERSION SYMBOLS
DIATONIC CHORD QUALITIES
NUMBER OF HALFSTEPS
st
nd
rd
o
IN SIMPLE INTERVALS
Root
1
2
3
Major
I
ii
iii
IV
V
vi
vii
Position
Inv.
Inv.
Inv.
o
V
vii
o
Minor
i
ii
III
iv
VI
6
Triad
none
6
none
(v)
(VII)
4
Dim
Min
Maj
Aug
o
* In minor the V and the vii
require
Seventh
6
4
4
nd
2
0
1
2
3
7
Chord
5
3
2
an accidental to raise the leading tone.
rd
3
2
3
4
5
th
6
7
8
9
10
th
FUNCTIONAL DIATONIC CHORD PROGRESSIONS
7
9
10
11
12
Rule of Thumb
Diagram of Common Functional Progressions
Dim
Per
Aug
Root
Typical
movement by:
Direction
th
4
4
5
6
nd
2
Ascending
th
5
6
7
8
rd
3
Descending
th
8
11
12
13
th
5
Descending
CHROMATIC CHORDS
Type
Notation
Distinguishing Features
th
Any dominant-functioning chromatic chord that leads (by falling 5
or rising halfstep root
Secondary
V/ii
movement) to a diatonic pitch. The chord on the top can be any of the following (in any
o7
7
o
o7
ø7
Chord
vii
/V
inversion): V, V
, vii
, vii
, vii
. The chord on the bottom can be any diatonic or borrowed
chord that is major or minor.
Borrowed
see borrowed
Any chromatic triad or seventh chord that is “borrowed” from the parallel minor (or the parallel
Chord
chord chart
major if the original key is minor). All notes in the chord must exist in the parallel key to qualify.
nd
Neapolitan
A major triad in first inversion with a lowered 2
scale degree as its root. This chord functions as
6
N
th
6
6
Chord
a pre-dominant chord, usually coming before a V or a I
.
4
+6
It
Augmented
Any of three specific chords which contain the interval of an augmented sixth resolving outward
+6
Fr
th
6
Chord
by half-steps in both directions to the dominant pitch. See chart.
+6
Ger
AUGMENTED 6
CHORDS
TH
BORROWED CHORDS
Example
(Mode Mixture)
Notes Present
(Key of C)
Triads – Major Key
Three pitches only. The
Diatonic
o
I
ii
iii
IV
V
vi
vii
+6
It
characteristic augmented sixth
Chord
Borrowed
interval, and the tonic pitch.
o
i
ii
III
iv
v
VI
VII
Chord
The characteristic augmented
The only triads commonly borrowed in
+6
Fr
sixth interval, the tonic pitch,
minor keys are the I and the IV
and the second scale degree.
The characteristic augmented
Seventh Chords – Major Key
sixth interval, the tonic pitch,
+6
Ger
Diatonic
and the lowered third (or the
M7
7
7
M7
7
7
ø7
I
ii
iii
IV
V
vi
vii
Chord
regular third in minor).
*The “characteristic augmented sixth interval” consists of two
7
VII
Borrowed
7
ø7
M7
7
7
M7
pitches, an augmented sixth apart, that resolve outward by
i
ii
III
iv
v
VI
o7
Chord
vii
halfsteps to the dominant pitch.
CIRCLE OF FIFTHS
SCALES
Major
Natural
Minor
Harmonic
Minor
Melodic
Minor
Pentatonic
Whole
Tone
Blues
Octatonic
(H-W)
Octatonic
(W-H)
CHORD QUALITIES
Triads
Bottom
Top
Outside
Roman
Jazz
Example
Chord Type
Interval
Interval
Interval
Numeral
Symbol
(key of F)
Major Triad
M3
m3
P5
IV
B
Dm, Dmi,
Minor Triad
m3
M3
P5
vi
Dmin, D-
+
+
Augmented Triad
M3
M3
A5
V
C
, Caug
o
o
Diminished Triad
m3
m3
d5
vii
E
, Edim
Seventh Chords
Chord
Common
Bottom
Middle
Top
Outside
Roman
Jazz
Example
Type
Name
Interval
Interval
Interval
Interval
Numeral
Symbol
(key of G)
Am7, Ami7,
7
th
th
Minor-minor 7
Minor 7
m3
M3
m3
m7
ii
A-7
GM7, Gma7,
M7
th
th
M3
m3
M3
M7
I
Major-major 7
Major 7
Gmaj7, G∆7
7
th
th
Major-minor 7
Dominant 7
M3
m3
m3
m7
V
D7
o7
F#
,
o7
th
th
m3
m3
m3
d7
vii
Fully diminished 7
Diminished 7
F#dim7
ø7
( 5)
th
th
m3
m3
m3
M3
ii
Am7
Half diminished 7
Half diminished 7
(maj7)
th
th
m3
M3
M3
M7
n/a
Em
Minor-major 7
Minor-major 7
SAMPLE ANALYSIS
Jazz Chords Above
Non-Chord Tones Labeled
7( 5)
7( 5)
E
B /D E
E /D A /C B
B
E /G A Am
B 7 E
PT
UNT
SUS
6
4
6
+6
6
ø7
7
E :
I
V
I
V
/IV IV
Fr
V
I
IV vii
/V V
I
2
Key Identified
IAC
HC
Cadences Labeled
Roman Numerals and Figures Below
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