"Ap Chemistry Equations and Constants Reference Sheet"

ADVERTISEMENT
ADVERTISEMENT

Download "Ap Chemistry Equations and Constants Reference Sheet"

Download PDF

Fill PDF online

Rate (4.6 / 5) 25 votes
AP Chemistry Equations & Constants
ADVANCED PLACEMENT CHEMISTRY EQUATIONS AND CONSTANTS
ADVANCED PLACEMENT CHEMISTRY EQUATIONS AND CONSTANTS
Throughout the test the following symbols have the definitions specified unless otherwise noted.
Throughout the test the following symbols have the definitions specified unless otherwise noted.
L, mL = liter(s), milliliter(s)
L, mL = liter(s), milliliter(s)
mm Hg = millimeters of mercury
mm Hg = millimeters of mercury
g
= gram(s)
J, kJ
= joule(s), kilojoule(s)
g
= gram(s)
J, kJ
= joule(s), kilojoule(s)
nm
nm
= nanometer(s)
= nanometer(s)
V
V
= volt(s)
= volt(s)
atm
atm
= atmosphere(s)
= atmosphere(s)
mol
mol
= mole(s)
= mole(s)
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
E = energy
E = energy
ν
ν
E = h
E = h
ν
ν
= frequency
= frequency
λν
λν
c =
c =
λ
λ
= wavelength
= wavelength
−34
−34
Planck’s constant, h = 6.626 × 10
Planck’s constant, h = 6.626 × 10
J s
J s
−1
−1
Speed of light, c = 2.998 × 10
Speed of light, c = 2.998 × 10
8
8
m s
m s
−1
−1
Avogadro’s number = 6.022 × 10
23
Avogadro’s number = 6.022 × 10
23
mol
mol
−19
−19
Electron charge, e = −1.602 × 10
Electron charge, e = −1.602 × 10
coulomb
coulomb
EQUILIBRIUM
EQUILIBRIUM
c
c
d
d
[C] [D]
[C] [D]
K
K
=
=
, where a A + b B
, where a A + b B
c C + d D
c C + d D
Equilibrium Constants
Equilibrium Constants
c
c
a
a
b
b
[A] [B]
[A] [B]
K
K
(molar concentrations)
(molar concentrations)
c
c
d
d
c
c
(
(
P
) (
) (
P
)
)
P
P
C
C
D
D
K
=
=
K
K
(gas pressures)
(gas pressures)
K
p
p
a
a
b
b
p
(
(
P
P
) (
) (
P
P
)
)
p
A
A
B
B
K
K
(weak acid)
(weak acid)
a
a
+
+
-
-
[H ][A ]
[H ][A ]
K
K
=
=
K
K
(weak base)
(weak base)
a
a
[HA]
b
b
[HA]
K
(water)
(water)
K
-
-
+
+
w
w
[OH ][HB ]
[OH ][HB ]
=
K
K
=
b
b
[B]
[B]
−14
−14
+
+
] = 1.0 × 10
] = 1.0 × 10
= [H
][OH
at 25°C
K
K
= [H
][OH
at 25°C
w
w
× K
× K
= K
= K
a
a
b
b
pH = −log[H
pH = −log[H
+
+
] , pOH = −log[OH
] , pOH = −log[OH
]
]
14 = pH + pOH
14 = pH + pOH
-
-
[A ]
[A ]
pH = pK
pH = pK
+ log
+ log
a
a
[HA]
[HA]
= −logK
= −logK
= −logK
= −logK
pK
pK
, pK
, pK
a
a
b
b
a
a
b
b
KINETICS
KINETICS
− ln[A]
− ln[A]
= − kt
= − kt
ln[A]
ln[A]
t
t
0
0
k = rate constant
k = rate constant
1
1
1
1
t = time
t = time
-
-
= kt
= kt
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
A
A
A
A
t ½ = half-life
t ½ = half-life
t
t
0
0
0.693
0.693
t ½ =
t ½ =
k
k
AP Chemistry Equations & Constants
ADVANCED PLACEMENT CHEMISTRY EQUATIONS AND CONSTANTS
ADVANCED PLACEMENT CHEMISTRY EQUATIONS AND CONSTANTS
Throughout the test the following symbols have the definitions specified unless otherwise noted.
Throughout the test the following symbols have the definitions specified unless otherwise noted.
L, mL = liter(s), milliliter(s)
L, mL = liter(s), milliliter(s)
mm Hg = millimeters of mercury
mm Hg = millimeters of mercury
g
= gram(s)
J, kJ
= joule(s), kilojoule(s)
g
= gram(s)
J, kJ
= joule(s), kilojoule(s)
nm
nm
= nanometer(s)
= nanometer(s)
V
V
= volt(s)
= volt(s)
atm
atm
= atmosphere(s)
= atmosphere(s)
mol
mol
= mole(s)
= mole(s)
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
E = energy
E = energy
ν
ν
E = h
E = h
ν
ν
= frequency
= frequency
λν
λν
c =
c =
λ
λ
= wavelength
= wavelength
−34
−34
Planck’s constant, h = 6.626 × 10
Planck’s constant, h = 6.626 × 10
J s
J s
−1
−1
Speed of light, c = 2.998 × 10
Speed of light, c = 2.998 × 10
8
8
m s
m s
−1
−1
Avogadro’s number = 6.022 × 10
23
Avogadro’s number = 6.022 × 10
23
mol
mol
−19
−19
Electron charge, e = −1.602 × 10
Electron charge, e = −1.602 × 10
coulomb
coulomb
EQUILIBRIUM
EQUILIBRIUM
c
c
d
d
[C] [D]
[C] [D]
K
K
=
=
, where a A + b B
, where a A + b B
c C + d D
c C + d D
Equilibrium Constants
Equilibrium Constants
c
c
a
a
b
b
[A] [B]
[A] [B]
K
K
(molar concentrations)
(molar concentrations)
c
c
d
d
c
c
(
(
P
) (
) (
P
)
)
P
P
C
C
D
D
K
=
=
K
K
(gas pressures)
(gas pressures)
K
p
p
a
a
b
b
p
(
(
P
P
) (
) (
P
P
)
)
p
A
A
B
B
K
K
(weak acid)
(weak acid)
a
a
+
+
-
-
[H ][A ]
[H ][A ]
K
K
=
=
K
K
(weak base)
(weak base)
a
a
[HA]
b
b
[HA]
K
(water)
(water)
K
-
-
+
+
w
w
[OH ][HB ]
[OH ][HB ]
=
K
K
=
b
b
[B]
[B]
−14
−14
+
+
] = 1.0 × 10
] = 1.0 × 10
= [H
][OH
at 25°C
K
K
= [H
][OH
at 25°C
w
w
× K
× K
= K
= K
a
a
b
b
pH = −log[H
pH = −log[H
+
+
] , pOH = −log[OH
] , pOH = −log[OH
]
]
14 = pH + pOH
14 = pH + pOH
-
-
[A ]
[A ]
pH = pK
pH = pK
+ log
+ log
a
a
[HA]
[HA]
= −logK
= −logK
= −logK
= −logK
pK
pK
, pK
, pK
a
a
b
b
a
a
b
b
KINETICS
KINETICS
− ln[A]
− ln[A]
= − kt
= − kt
ln[A]
ln[A]
t
t
0
0
k = rate constant
k = rate constant
1
1
1
1
t = time
t = time
-
-
= kt
= kt
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
A
A
A
A
t ½ = half-life
t ½ = half-life
t
t
0
0
0.693
0.693
t ½ =
t ½ =
k
k
GASES, LIQUIDS, AND SOLUTIONS
=
pressure
P
=
V
volume
PV = nRT
=
T
temperature
moles A
=
n
number of moles
× X
P
= P
, where X
=
A
total
A
A
total moles
=
m
mass
=
M
molar mass
P
= P
+ P
+ P
+ . . .
total
A
B
C
=
density
D
m
=
KE
kinetic energy
n =
M
=
velocity
Ã
=
absorbance
K = ° C + 273
A
=
a
molar absorptivity
m
=
path length
D =
b
V
=
c
concentration
1
2
KE per molecule =
mv
2
-
-
1
1
=
Gas constant,
R
8.314 J mol K
Molarity, M = moles of solute per liter of solution
-
-
1
1
=
0.08206
L atm mol K
-
-
1
1
=
62.36 L torr mol K
A = abc
=
1 atm
760 mm Hg
=
760 torr
=
STP
0.00 C and 1.000 atm
THERMOCHEMISTRY/ ELECTROCHEMISTRY
=
q
heat
=
mass
m
=
q
mc T
D
=
c
specific heat capacity
=
T
temperature
=
-
Â
Â
S
S
products
S
reactants
D
=
S
standard entropy
=
-
Â
Â
H
H
products
H
reactants
D
D
D
f
=
f
standard enthalpy
H
=
G
standard free energy
=
-
Â
Â
G
G
products
G
reactants
D
D
D
f
f
=
n
number of moles
=
E
standard reduction potential
=
-
D
G
D
H
T S
D
=
I
current (amperes)
= -
ln
RT
K
=
charge (coulombs)
q
= ime (seconds)
t
t
= -
n F E
F =
Faraday’s constant ,
96,485 coulombs per mole
q
I
of electrons
t
1 joule
=
1volt
1 coulomb
 
Page of 3