"Advanced Chemistry Formulas Cheat Sheet"

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Advanced Chemistry useful handout #1
Additional conversion factors and constants:
Metric conversion chart
Energy:
10 9 g =
1 Joule = 1 kg m 2
1 Gg
giga
4.18 Joules = 1 calorie
sec 2
10 6 g =
1 Mg
mega
10 3 g =
Volume: 1 cm 3 = 1 mL
1 dm 3 = 1 L
1 kg
kilo
1000 g = 1 kg
1 g =
1 g
BASE
1 m 3 = 10 3 L
10 1 dg
1 g =
deci
1 g = 10 dg
Density = __Mass___:
1 gram (water only)
10 2 cg
1 g =
centi
1 g = 100 cg
Volume
mL
10 3 mg
1 g =
milli
1 g = 1000 mg
Avogadro’s number: N = 6.02 x 10 23 particles
10 6 µg
1 g =
micro
1 mole
10 9 ng
1 g =
nano
Kelvin = °Celsius + 273
10 12 pg
1 g =
pico
1 atm = 760 mm Hg
10 10 Å (Angstroms) = 1 meter (atomic size)
Linear to Volume: When converting between linear and volume measurements, you need to cube the
conversion factor! 10 cm = 1 dm : so (10 cm) 3 = (1 dm) 3 thus 1000 cm 3 = 1 dm 3 = 1 Liter
Some Helpful Formulas:
Gas Laws: Conversions: STP for gases = 0°C and 1 atm ; (or 273 K , 760 mm Hg)
Combined : P 1 V 1 = P 2 V 2
Diffusion: rate A = √FW B
Molar volume of = 22.4 L
gas law
T 1
T 2
rate B √FW A
a gas at STP
mole
Ideal Gas Law: PV = nRT
If you know P, V, T of a gas, you can calculate moles!
For PV = nRT: P in atm, V in L, n = moles, T in K, Ideal Gas Constant, R = 0.0821 L atm/mol K
(use Partial Pressure of a gas in PV = nRT to get mol of that particular gas)
Dalton’s law of Partial Pressures: P total = P a + P b + P c + ....
P dry gas = P total  – P water vapor
Partial pressure = P a = X a P total
where mol fraction= X a =
mol a
Total mol of gases
Solutions: Molarity = moles solute or
M = mol
mol = V M
V = mol (V must be in Liters)
L of solution
L
M
Or : can use millimoles and milliliters: M = mmol
mmol = mL M
mL = mmol
mL
M
Dilutions: V 1 M 1 = V 2 M 2 (can use mL for Volumes)
Acid Base Titration: V a M a (#H) = V b M b (#OH)
molality = m = mol solute
mol fraction= X a =
mol a
Weight % =
g solute
kg solvent
total mol
100 g solution
Advanced Chemistry useful handout #1
Additional conversion factors and constants:
Metric conversion chart
Energy:
10 9 g =
1 Joule = 1 kg m 2
1 Gg
giga
4.18 Joules = 1 calorie
sec 2
10 6 g =
1 Mg
mega
10 3 g =
Volume: 1 cm 3 = 1 mL
1 dm 3 = 1 L
1 kg
kilo
1000 g = 1 kg
1 g =
1 g
BASE
1 m 3 = 10 3 L
10 1 dg
1 g =
deci
1 g = 10 dg
Density = __Mass___:
1 gram (water only)
10 2 cg
1 g =
centi
1 g = 100 cg
Volume
mL
10 3 mg
1 g =
milli
1 g = 1000 mg
Avogadro’s number: N = 6.02 x 10 23 particles
10 6 µg
1 g =
micro
1 mole
10 9 ng
1 g =
nano
Kelvin = °Celsius + 273
10 12 pg
1 g =
pico
1 atm = 760 mm Hg
10 10 Å (Angstroms) = 1 meter (atomic size)
Linear to Volume: When converting between linear and volume measurements, you need to cube the
conversion factor! 10 cm = 1 dm : so (10 cm) 3 = (1 dm) 3 thus 1000 cm 3 = 1 dm 3 = 1 Liter
Some Helpful Formulas:
Gas Laws: Conversions: STP for gases = 0°C and 1 atm ; (or 273 K , 760 mm Hg)
Combined : P 1 V 1 = P 2 V 2
Diffusion: rate A = √FW B
Molar volume of = 22.4 L
gas law
T 1
T 2
rate B √FW A
a gas at STP
mole
Ideal Gas Law: PV = nRT
If you know P, V, T of a gas, you can calculate moles!
For PV = nRT: P in atm, V in L, n = moles, T in K, Ideal Gas Constant, R = 0.0821 L atm/mol K
(use Partial Pressure of a gas in PV = nRT to get mol of that particular gas)
Dalton’s law of Partial Pressures: P total = P a + P b + P c + ....
P dry gas = P total  – P water vapor
Partial pressure = P a = X a P total
where mol fraction= X a =
mol a
Total mol of gases
Solutions: Molarity = moles solute or
M = mol
mol = V M
V = mol (V must be in Liters)
L of solution
L
M
Or : can use millimoles and milliliters: M = mmol
mmol = mL M
mL = mmol
mL
M
Dilutions: V 1 M 1 = V 2 M 2 (can use mL for Volumes)
Acid Base Titration: V a M a (#H) = V b M b (#OH)
molality = m = mol solute
mol fraction= X a =
mol a
Weight % =
g solute
kg solvent
total mol
100 g solution
More Helpful Formulas:
Solutions: More formulas
C gas = k P gas : Solubility of a gas (C gas ) in a solution is proportional to the Partial Pressure of the gas
Colligative properties:
∆P A = X B P A ° : V.P. decrease (∆P A ) of a solvent = mol fraction of solute x V.P. of pure solvent (P A °)
Osmotic Pressure = π = MRT
Solution Freezing, Boiling pt. changes: ∆T f = K f m
∆T b = K b m
(For Water:K f = 1.86°C/m, K b = 0.52°C/m)
Heat and Thermochemistry: q = m Cp ∆T; Cp (in J/g°C) = 4.18 water, 2.09 ice, 1.84 steam
q = m ∆H vap (boiling) ; ∆H vap = 2257 J/g
q = m ∆H fus (freezing) ; ∆H fus = 334 J/g (for water)
∆H°reaction = ∆H f ° (prod) – ∆H f ° (react)
Atoms Speed of light, c= 3.00 x 10 8 m/sec
Atomic Mass Unit: 1 amu = 1.66054 x 10 –27 kg
Atomic scale energy unit (Million electron volt): 1 MeV = 1.60218 x 10 –13 joules
mass of a proton = 1.00727650 amu, neutron = 1.00866492 amu,
electron = 0.0005486 amu
Matter & Energy equivalence: E = m c 2 ; (“large” units: use Joules, kg and m/sec)
1 amu = 931.494 MeV of energy (For atomic scale units)
Radioactive decay: ln N 0 – ln N t = 0.693 t
half-life;
Electrons: Planck’s constant, h= 6.63 x 10 –34 J sec
c = λν
λ = wavelength, ν = frequency
λ = h
Energy of a photon: E =
or E = h c
Wavelength of moving matter
mv
λ
(
v = velocity)
Bohr atom: E = hν = 2.18 x 10 –18 J ( _ 1_ – _ 1_ )
Energy of an electron transition in a
n i 2
n f 2
Hydrogen atom, n i , n f = initial and final
energy levels of the electron
Bonding: estimated ∆H reaction = Bond energy of bonds broken – bonds made
Bond order = 1/2 (# bonding electrons – # anti bonding electrons)
diamagnetic= all electrons paired; paramagnetic = has unpaired electrons
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