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Advanced Chemistry useful handout #1

Additional conversion factors and constants:

Metric conversion chart

Energy:

10 9 g =

1 Joule = 1 kg m 2

1 Gg

giga

4.18 Joules = 1 calorie

sec 2

10 6 g =

1 Mg

mega

10 3 g =

Volume: 1 cm 3 = 1 mL

1 dm 3 = 1 L

1 kg

kilo

1000 g = 1 kg

1 g =

1 g

BASE

1 m 3 = 10 3 L

10 1 dg

1 g =

deci

1 g = 10 dg

Density = __Mass___:

1 gram (water only)

10 2 cg

1 g =

centi

1 g = 100 cg

Volume

mL

10 3 mg

1 g =

milli

1 g = 1000 mg

Avogadro’s number: N = 6.02 x 10 23 particles

10 6 µg

1 g =

micro

1 mole

10 9 ng

1 g =

nano

Kelvin = °Celsius + 273

10 12 pg

1 g =

pico

1 atm = 760 mm Hg

10 10 Å (Angstroms) = 1 meter (atomic size)

Linear to Volume: When converting between linear and volume measurements, you need to cube the

conversion factor! 10 cm = 1 dm : so (10 cm) 3 = (1 dm) 3 thus 1000 cm 3 = 1 dm 3 = 1 Liter

Some Helpful Formulas:

Gas Laws: Conversions: STP for gases = 0°C and 1 atm ; (or 273 K , 760 mm Hg)

Combined : P 1 V 1 = P 2 V 2

Diffusion: rate A = √FW B

Molar volume of = 22.4 L

gas law

T 1

T 2

rate B √FW A

a gas at STP

mole

Ideal Gas Law: PV = nRT

If you know P, V, T of a gas, you can calculate moles!

For PV = nRT: P in atm, V in L, n = moles, T in K, Ideal Gas Constant, R = 0.0821 L atm/mol K

(use Partial Pressure of a gas in PV = nRT to get mol of that particular gas)

Dalton’s law of Partial Pressures: P total = P a + P b + P c + ....

P dry gas = P total – P water vapor

Partial pressure = P a = X a P total

where mol fraction= X a =

mol a

Total mol of gases

Solutions: Molarity = moles solute or

M = mol

mol = V M

V = mol (V must be in Liters)

L of solution

L

M

Or : can use millimoles and milliliters: M = mmol

mmol = mL M

mL = mmol

mL

M

Dilutions: V 1 M 1 = V 2 M 2 (can use mL for Volumes)

Acid Base Titration: V a M a (#H) = V b M b (#OH)

molality = m = mol solute

mol fraction= X a =

mol a

Weight % =

g solute

kg solvent

total mol

100 g solution

Advanced Chemistry useful handout #1

Additional conversion factors and constants:

Metric conversion chart

Energy:

10 9 g =

1 Joule = 1 kg m 2

1 Gg

giga

4.18 Joules = 1 calorie

sec 2

10 6 g =

1 Mg

mega

10 3 g =

Volume: 1 cm 3 = 1 mL

1 dm 3 = 1 L

1 kg

kilo

1000 g = 1 kg

1 g =

1 g

BASE

1 m 3 = 10 3 L

10 1 dg

1 g =

deci

1 g = 10 dg

Density = __Mass___:

1 gram (water only)

10 2 cg

1 g =

centi

1 g = 100 cg

Volume

mL

10 3 mg

1 g =

milli

1 g = 1000 mg

Avogadro’s number: N = 6.02 x 10 23 particles

10 6 µg

1 g =

micro

1 mole

10 9 ng

1 g =

nano

Kelvin = °Celsius + 273

10 12 pg

1 g =

pico

1 atm = 760 mm Hg

10 10 Å (Angstroms) = 1 meter (atomic size)

Linear to Volume: When converting between linear and volume measurements, you need to cube the

conversion factor! 10 cm = 1 dm : so (10 cm) 3 = (1 dm) 3 thus 1000 cm 3 = 1 dm 3 = 1 Liter

Some Helpful Formulas:

Gas Laws: Conversions: STP for gases = 0°C and 1 atm ; (or 273 K , 760 mm Hg)

Combined : P 1 V 1 = P 2 V 2

Diffusion: rate A = √FW B

Molar volume of = 22.4 L

gas law

T 1

T 2

rate B √FW A

a gas at STP

mole

Ideal Gas Law: PV = nRT

If you know P, V, T of a gas, you can calculate moles!

For PV = nRT: P in atm, V in L, n = moles, T in K, Ideal Gas Constant, R = 0.0821 L atm/mol K

(use Partial Pressure of a gas in PV = nRT to get mol of that particular gas)

Dalton’s law of Partial Pressures: P total = P a + P b + P c + ....

P dry gas = P total – P water vapor

Partial pressure = P a = X a P total

where mol fraction= X a =

mol a

Total mol of gases

Solutions: Molarity = moles solute or

M = mol

mol = V M

V = mol (V must be in Liters)

L of solution

L

M

Or : can use millimoles and milliliters: M = mmol

mmol = mL M

mL = mmol

mL

M

Dilutions: V 1 M 1 = V 2 M 2 (can use mL for Volumes)

Acid Base Titration: V a M a (#H) = V b M b (#OH)

molality = m = mol solute

mol fraction= X a =

mol a

Weight % =

g solute

kg solvent

total mol

100 g solution

More Helpful Formulas:

Solutions: More formulas

C gas = k P gas : Solubility of a gas (C gas ) in a solution is proportional to the Partial Pressure of the gas

Colligative properties:

∆P A = X B P A ° : V.P. decrease (∆P A ) of a solvent = mol fraction of solute x V.P. of pure solvent (P A °)

Osmotic Pressure = π = MRT

Solution Freezing, Boiling pt. changes: ∆T f = K f m

∆T b = K b m

(For Water:K f = 1.86°C/m, K b = 0.52°C/m)

Heat and Thermochemistry: q = m Cp ∆T; Cp (in J/g°C) = 4.18 water, 2.09 ice, 1.84 steam

q = m ∆H vap (boiling) ; ∆H vap = 2257 J/g

q = m ∆H fus (freezing) ; ∆H fus = 334 J/g (for water)

∆H°reaction = ∆H f ° (prod) – ∆H f ° (react)

Atoms Speed of light, c= 3.00 x 10 8 m/sec

Atomic Mass Unit: 1 amu = 1.66054 x 10 –27 kg

Atomic scale energy unit (Million electron volt): 1 MeV = 1.60218 x 10 –13 joules

mass of a proton = 1.00727650 amu, neutron = 1.00866492 amu,

electron = 0.0005486 amu

Matter & Energy equivalence: E = m c 2 ; (“large” units: use Joules, kg and m/sec)

1 amu = 931.494 MeV of energy (For atomic scale units)

Radioactive decay: ln N 0 – ln N t = 0.693 t

half-life;

Electrons: Planck’s constant, h= 6.63 x 10 –34 J sec

c = λν

λ = wavelength, ν = frequency

hν

λ = h

Energy of a photon: E =

or E = h c

Wavelength of moving matter

mv

λ

(

v = velocity)

Bohr atom: E = hν = 2.18 x 10 –18 J ( _ 1_ – _ 1_ )

Energy of an electron transition in a

n i 2

n f 2

Hydrogen atom, n i , n f = initial and final

energy levels of the electron

Bonding: estimated ∆H reaction = Bond energy of bonds broken – bonds made

Bond order = 1/2 (# bonding electrons – # anti bonding electrons)

diamagnetic= all electrons paired; paramagnetic = has unpaired electrons

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