"Origin and Formation of the Universe Worksheet - Integrated Science 2, Tamalpais Union High School District"

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Origin   a nd   F ormation   o f   t he   U niverse   –   P owerPoint   n otes  
Integrated Science 2
Name:
Period:
Evidence for Big Bang/Inflation
I.
A. Background Radiation
1. In _______________, scientists Penzias and Wilson discovered __________________________
interfering with radio antennae, causing ______________________________________.
2. That radiation is called _______________________________________ and is thought to be
radiation from the ________________________.
3. This radiation can be detected by common ________________ and __________________
antennae. (ex: ______________ on an old television is made up of a small percent of radiation
from the big bang)
B. Red Shift
1. Astronomers observed the “ ___________________” of starlight throughout the universe.
2. This redness is the result of light waves being ______________________ as objects in the
universe move _____________ from each other (the result of the big bang).
• What is the Doppler effect?
-- Doppler Effect is the change in frequency of a wave (such as a sound wave)
when it is observed relative to a moving source (like a car)
--Light waves can also experience Doppler Effect when the source of the light
(such as a ________) is moving
--Astronomers observed that light from distant stars has been _________
towards the red end of the light spectrum.
--This phenomenon is called _____________
--The ______________ away a star is, the more its light is shifted
towards the red end of the spectrum, demonstrating that the universe
is ____________________________
II. Theories on the Formation of the Universe
A. The Big Bang Theory – The theory that the universe began as a ________________ (singularity) and
has been
______________________________________________.
1. The ______________________ was originally packed into one dense sphere of
__________________ about the size of a _____________________.
2. The sphere “exploded”, forming a __________________________________________.
Origin   a nd   F ormation   o f   t he   U niverse   –   P owerPoint   n otes  
Integrated Science 2
Name:
Period:
Evidence for Big Bang/Inflation
I.
A. Background Radiation
1. In _______________, scientists Penzias and Wilson discovered __________________________
interfering with radio antennae, causing ______________________________________.
2. That radiation is called _______________________________________ and is thought to be
radiation from the ________________________.
3. This radiation can be detected by common ________________ and __________________
antennae. (ex: ______________ on an old television is made up of a small percent of radiation
from the big bang)
B. Red Shift
1. Astronomers observed the “ ___________________” of starlight throughout the universe.
2. This redness is the result of light waves being ______________________ as objects in the
universe move _____________ from each other (the result of the big bang).
• What is the Doppler effect?
-- Doppler Effect is the change in frequency of a wave (such as a sound wave)
when it is observed relative to a moving source (like a car)
--Light waves can also experience Doppler Effect when the source of the light
(such as a ________) is moving
--Astronomers observed that light from distant stars has been _________
towards the red end of the light spectrum.
--This phenomenon is called _____________
--The ______________ away a star is, the more its light is shifted
towards the red end of the spectrum, demonstrating that the universe
is ____________________________
II. Theories on the Formation of the Universe
A. The Big Bang Theory – The theory that the universe began as a ________________ (singularity) and
has been
______________________________________________.
1. The ______________________ was originally packed into one dense sphere of
__________________ about the size of a _____________________.
2. The sphere “exploded”, forming a __________________________________________.
3. As the cloud moved, parts ____________________ and formed billions of __________________
4. These galaxies continue to move _____________________ today.
5. ______________________________________ theory of universe formation.
B. The Steady State Theory – The belief that the universe doesn’t change with _________ but more
matter is added to the universe as it _____________________.
1. Popular during the _____________ and _____________.
2. The universe had _______________________________ and has _________________.
C. Inflationary Theory – predicts that there was a ________________________________ when the
universe was very young, more extreme than predicted by ___________________________________!
1. Considered to be a ____________________ Big Bang Theory.
2. The universe ____________________ and ___________________ until about _______________
second after the big bang when it became so cool that the forces of nature caused the universe to
_____________________________________.
3. This initial expansion was faster than ___________________________________.
III.
Formation of Galaxies
1. Galaxies began as _________of gas and dust (also called a ____________________)
2. The clouds __________________ under the force of their own ____________________,
forming galaxies of a variety of shapes.
3. Our galaxy the ____________________________ is a __________________ galaxy,
consisting of a _____________________ surrounded by arms that rotate in a
_________________ direction.
Solar systems similar to ours move around in this galaxy in a ________________________.
4.
IV.
Shape of Galaxies
1. Spiral (like the Milky Way – OUR galaxy).
2. Barred Spirals
3. Elliptical
4. Irregular
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