"Origin of Life Worksheet - Unit 1 Part 11 Chapter 25, Mrs. Gallagher, Serrano High School"

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AP BIOLOGY
NAME_____________________
EVOLUTION/HEREDITY UNIT
Unit 1 Part 11 Chapter 25
DATE____________PERIOD____
Activity #15
ORIGIN OF LIFE
HISTORY OF LIFE
Earth is 4.5 billion years old
Oldest rock o 3.8 billion years old o
Contains isotopes of carbon o Indicates
metabolic activity
Oldest fossils
3.5 billion years old
Stromatolites
Banded domes of sedimentary rock
Resemble layered mats of cyanobacteria today
Probably photosynthetic o Probably not first life forms
First life forms were NOT photosynthetic
O
H
NE
YPOTHESIS
C
E
S
ONDITIONS ON
ARTH
CENARIO
1.
Atmosphere had little O
Abiotic synthesis of organic
2
Intense o Lightning
monomers
2.
Volcanic activity
Abiotic synthesis of polymers
Meteorite bombardment
3.
Formation of protobionts
UV radiation
4.
Origin of hereditary material
ABIOTIC SYNTHESIS OF ORGANIC MONOMERS
1920S
1953
OPARIN & HALDANE
MILLER & UREY
Worked independently
Tested Oparin & Haldane hypothesis
Postulated
Created conditions on early Earth in lab
Conditions on primitive Earth
Atmosphere – H
O, H
, CH
, NH
2
2
4
3
favored abiotic synthesis of organic
Added spark
material
Created organic material
o Atmosphere
Other labs have created
Contained less O
2
o
All 20 AA
Less oxidizing than today’s
o
Some sugars & lipids
More reducing than today’s
o
Purine & pyrimidine bases
o
ATP
EVOLUTION #15
Page 1 of 4
AP BIOLOGY
NAME_____________________
EVOLUTION/HEREDITY UNIT
Unit 1 Part 11 Chapter 25
DATE____________PERIOD____
Activity #15
ORIGIN OF LIFE
HISTORY OF LIFE
Earth is 4.5 billion years old
Oldest rock o 3.8 billion years old o
Contains isotopes of carbon o Indicates
metabolic activity
Oldest fossils
3.5 billion years old
Stromatolites
Banded domes of sedimentary rock
Resemble layered mats of cyanobacteria today
Probably photosynthetic o Probably not first life forms
First life forms were NOT photosynthetic
O
H
NE
YPOTHESIS
C
E
S
ONDITIONS ON
ARTH
CENARIO
1.
Atmosphere had little O
Abiotic synthesis of organic
2
Intense o Lightning
monomers
2.
Volcanic activity
Abiotic synthesis of polymers
Meteorite bombardment
3.
Formation of protobionts
UV radiation
4.
Origin of hereditary material
ABIOTIC SYNTHESIS OF ORGANIC MONOMERS
1920S
1953
OPARIN & HALDANE
MILLER & UREY
Worked independently
Tested Oparin & Haldane hypothesis
Postulated
Created conditions on early Earth in lab
Conditions on primitive Earth
Atmosphere – H
O, H
, CH
, NH
2
2
4
3
favored abiotic synthesis of organic
Added spark
material
Created organic material
o Atmosphere
Other labs have created
Contained less O
2
o
All 20 AA
Less oxidizing than today’s
o
Some sugars & lipids
More reducing than today’s
o
Purine & pyrimidine bases
o
ATP
EVOLUTION #15
Page 1 of 4
A
S
P
BIOTIC
YNTHESIS OF
OLYMERS
Example: connecting amino acids (AA) together to form proteins
Occurred without enzymes
Evidence
o
Synthesis of protenoids
o Drip sol’n of AA on hot sand or clay o AA
bonded together to form protein o Zn and Fe ions
act as catalysts
F
P
ORMATION OF
ROTOBIONTS
Definition = aggregates of abiotically produced molecules with an internal
environment different from external
First primitive “cells”
Evidence o Coacervates
Microspheres – self-assembled proteinoids; protein membrane
o
selectively permeable; undergo osmosis
Liposomes: membrane of lipid bilayer; grow and split
o
ORIGIN OF HEREDITY
Genetic information made it possible to pass along information for making new
molecules
Today: DNA 
RNA 
protein
Originally: RNA 
protein
Support o RNA acts as enzyme (ribozymes)
o Synthesized short segments of RNA in lab; replicate short segments of RNA
without enzymes
M
L
L
AJOR
INEAGES OF
IFE
O
N
LD
EW
5 Kingdoms
Domains
Monera
Bacteria
Protista
Archaea
Plantae
Eukarya
Fungi
o 5 proposed protista
Animalia
kingdoms
o Kingdom Plantae
o Kingdom Fungi
Kingdom Animalia
o
EVOLUTION #15
Page 2 of 4
Questions:
1. How old is Earth? ___________________________________________
How old are the oldest fossils? _________________________________________
Why are these fossils NOT considered to represent the first life forms on Earth?
_________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
2. Describe the conditions of Earth at the time life began.
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
3. Listed below are descriptions or supporting evidence of the four proposed steps in the chemical
evolution that lead to the first cells. Identify each of the following as true of steps 1, 2, 3, or 4.
______Abiotic production of the 20 amino acids, sugars, lipids, purine and pyrimidine bases under
controlled laboratory conditions
______Abiotic synthesis of organic molecules
______abiotic synthesis of polymers
______Aggregates of abiotically produce molecules that are able to maintain an internal
environment different from the external
_____Charge sites on clay and or iron pyrite held monomers together long enough for a bond to
form between the monomers
_____Energy from UV radiation, lightning, and heat catalyzed the formation of organic monomers
from inorganic compounds
_____Formation of protobionts
_____Miller & Urey experiment
_____Origin of genetic material
_____Polymers synthesized by dehydration synthesis
_____Produce polymers by dripping a solution with monomers on hot clay or sand
_____Production of lipsomes
_____Ribozymes
_____RNA abiotically synthesized
4. Why was the origin of genetic material important to the origin of life on Earth?
-
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
5. How can an RNA molecule have both a genotype and a phenotype?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
6. How did the structure of RNA provide a mechanism for natural selection?
EVOLUTION #15
Page 3 of 4
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
7. Match the term with the correct description or definition
__________ Before life
A. Abiotic
__________Without life; inorganic
B. Prebiotic
__________Abiotically synthesize proteins
C. Protenoids
__________Aggregates of abiotically produced
D. Protobionts
molecules that maintain an internal
environment different from external
8. RNA may not have been the first hereditary system to develop. Explain.
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
9. Where, according to the current hypothesis, did life begin on Earth?
______________________________________________________________________________
Why is this hypothesis being challenged?
______________________________________________________________________________
What alternative is being proposed as to where life began on Earth?
______________________________________________________________________________
10. Indicate if each of the following is true of Domain Bacteria, Domain Archaea, Domain Eukarya.
_____Nuclear envelope and membrane-bound organelles absent
_____Nuclear envelope and membrane-bound organelles present
_____Peptidoglycan present in cell walls.
_____Peptidoglycan absent in cell walls.
_____Membrane lipids have unbranched hydrocarbon chains
_____Some membrane lipids have branched hydrocarbon chains
_____growth inhibited by antibiotics
_____growth not inhibited by antibiotics
_____Protists, plants, fungi, animals
_____Methanogens, halophiles, thermophiles
EVOLUTION #15
Page 4 of 4