"Chemistry Changes of State, Vapor Pressure, & Phase Diagrams Worksheets - 8th Grade, Mr. Kiser, Hill Country Middle School"

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Name
Period
Date
Changes of State, Vapor Pressure, & Phase Diagrams
Chemistry -
Generic Phase Diagram
Sublimation is the phase change as
a substance changes from a solid to
a gas without passing through the
intermediate state of a liquid.
Deposition is the phase change as a
substance changes from a gas to a
solid without passing through the
intermediate state of a liquid.
TRIPLE POINT - The temperature
and pressure at which the solid,
liquid, and gas phases exist
simultaneously.
CRITICAL POINT - The
temperature above which a substance will always be a gas regardless of the pressure.
NOTE:
The solid phase is more dense than the liquid phase.
o
The line between the solid and gas phases is the equilibrium of solid and gas phases at that
o
specific pressure and temperature, i.e. a curve of all the deposition/sublimation points.
The line between the solid and liquid phases is the equilibrium of solid and liquid phases at that
o
specific pressure and temperature, i.e. a curve of all the freezing/melting points.
The line between the liquid and gas phases is the equilibrium of liquid and gas phases at that
o
specific pressure and temperature, i.e. a curve of all the vaporization/condensation points.
Melting Point
The temperature at which the solid and liquid phases of a substance
(Freezing Point) -
are in equilibrium at atmospheric pressure.
Normal Melting Point
- The temperature at which the solid changes to a
(Freezing Point)
o
liquid at Standard Pressure (1.00 atm = 760 mmHg = 760 torr = 101.325 kPa)
Boiling Point
- The temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid is equal
(Condensation Point)
to the pressure on the liquid.
Normal Boiling Point
- The temperature at which the vapor pressure of a
(Condensation Point)
o
liquid is equal to Standard Pressure (1.00 atm = 760 mmHg = 760 torr = 101.325 kPa)
Phase Diagram for Water
Normal
For water, the liquid phase is
Normal
Boiling
Melting
Point
more dense than the solid phase
Point
due to hydrogen bonding.
Name
Period
Date
Changes of State, Vapor Pressure, & Phase Diagrams
Chemistry -
Generic Phase Diagram
Sublimation is the phase change as
a substance changes from a solid to
a gas without passing through the
intermediate state of a liquid.
Deposition is the phase change as a
substance changes from a gas to a
solid without passing through the
intermediate state of a liquid.
TRIPLE POINT - The temperature
and pressure at which the solid,
liquid, and gas phases exist
simultaneously.
CRITICAL POINT - The
temperature above which a substance will always be a gas regardless of the pressure.
NOTE:
The solid phase is more dense than the liquid phase.
o
The line between the solid and gas phases is the equilibrium of solid and gas phases at that
o
specific pressure and temperature, i.e. a curve of all the deposition/sublimation points.
The line between the solid and liquid phases is the equilibrium of solid and liquid phases at that
o
specific pressure and temperature, i.e. a curve of all the freezing/melting points.
The line between the liquid and gas phases is the equilibrium of liquid and gas phases at that
o
specific pressure and temperature, i.e. a curve of all the vaporization/condensation points.
Melting Point
The temperature at which the solid and liquid phases of a substance
(Freezing Point) -
are in equilibrium at atmospheric pressure.
Normal Melting Point
- The temperature at which the solid changes to a
(Freezing Point)
o
liquid at Standard Pressure (1.00 atm = 760 mmHg = 760 torr = 101.325 kPa)
Boiling Point
- The temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid is equal
(Condensation Point)
to the pressure on the liquid.
Normal Boiling Point
- The temperature at which the vapor pressure of a
(Condensation Point)
o
liquid is equal to Standard Pressure (1.00 atm = 760 mmHg = 760 torr = 101.325 kPa)
Phase Diagram for Water
Normal
For water, the liquid phase is
Normal
Boiling
Melting
Point
more dense than the solid phase
Point
due to hydrogen bonding.
Vapor Pressure
If you put any liquid in a sealed vessel
If you put any liquid in a sealed vessel and wait long enough,
(b) the liquid will come into equilibrium with its vapor, and a
the liquid will come into equilibrium with its vapor, and a
constant (steady; dependent only of the temperature)
constant (steady; dependent only of the temperature)
equilibrium vapor pressure will be established.
equilibrium vapor pressure will be established.
Normal Boiling Point - The temperature at which the
The temperature at which the
vapor pressure of a liquid is equal to
vapor pressure of a liquid is equal to Standard Pressure
(1.00 atm = 760 mmHg = 760 torr = 101.325 kPa)
(1.00 atm = 760 mmHg = 760 torr = 101.325 kPa)
P
B – V
P
G
ART
APOR
RESSURE
RAPH
RAPH
Use the graph at right to answer the following questions
to answer the following questions:
1. What is the vapor pressure of CHCl
What is the vapor pressure of CHCl
at 50°C?
3
2. What is the boiling point of H
O when the
O when the
2
external pressure is 30 kPa?
3. What is the normal boiling point of CCl
What is the normal boiling point of CCl
?
4
4. Which substance has the weakest IMF?
Which substance has the weakest IMF?
5. What does each VP curve represent?
What does each VP curve represent?
Phase Diagram 1
Use the phase diagram for water at right
at right to answer the
following questions:
1. What is the state of water at 2 atm and 50
What is the state of water at 2 atm and 50°
2. What phase change will occur if the temperature
What phase change will occur if the temperature
is lowered from 80°C to -5°C at 1 atm?
C at 1 atm?
3. You have ice at -10°C and 1 atm. What could
C and 1 atm. What could
you do in order cause the ice to sublime?
e the ice to sublime?
Phase Diagram 2
Refer to the phase diagram at right when
answering the questions on this worksheet:
1. What is the normal freezing point of this
substance?
2. What is the normal boiling point of this
substance?
3. What is the normal melting point of this
substance?
4. If I had a quantity of this substance at a
pressure
0
of 1.25 atm and a temperature of 300
C and
lowered the pressure to 0.25 atm, what phase
transition(s)
would occur?
5 At what temperature do the gas and liquid phases become indistinguishable from each other?
0
6. If I had a quantity of this substance at a pressure of 0.75 atm and a temperature of -100
C, what phase
0
change(s) would occur if I increased the temperature to 600
C? At what temperature(s) would they occur?
Phase Diagram 3
For each of the questions on this worksheet, refer to the
phase diagram for mysterious compound X:
1. What is the critical temperature of compound X?
2. If you were to have a bottle containing compound
in your closet, what phase would it most likely be in?
3. At what temperature and pressure will all three phases
coexist?
4. If I have a bottle of compound X at a pressure of
0
45 atm and temperature of 100
C, what will happen
0
if I raise the temperature to 400
C?
5. Why can’t compound X be boiled at a temperature
0
of 200
C?
6. If I wanted to, could I drink compound X?
Name:_____________________________________Period____Date__________________________
Chemistry I - Phase Diagrams Water & CO
2
Use the diagrams below to answer the following questions:
Phase Diagram for Water
(Not to Scale)
Phase Diagram for Carbon Dioxide
F
F
C
C
B
E
E
O
O
D
B
D
G
G
1. What does Point O in both diagrams above represents? And what can you tell me about the phase or phases
of matter at those pressures and temperatures?
2. What is the significance of line OF?
3. What is the significance of line OG?
4. What is the significance of line OE?
5. Using the diagrams above indicate the proper temperature or pressure for the following points.
o
o
a. Normal melting point
C for water______
g. Normal boiling point for
C for water______
b. Triple point temp for water _______
h. triple point pressure for water _______
c. Triple point temp for CO
_______
i. triple point pressure for CO
_______
2
2
d. Critical pressure for water _______
j. critical temp for water _______
e. Critical pressure for CO
_______
k. critical temp for CO
_______
2
2
f. Normal sublimation temperature for CO
_________
2
6. Refer to the phase diagram for water. What changes in temperature, pressure, and physical state would be
necessary to go from point D to point C?
7. Refer to the phase diagram for CO
. What changes in temperature, pressure, and physical state would be
2
necessary to go from point B to point D?